Choosing a floor covering is a responsible and important stage in the repair process. It is the floor that combines the aesthetic perception of the room as a whole, with a poor-quality or long-renovated coating, the appearance of the room will be spoiled.
Parquet is loved by consumers for its naturalness and expensive appearance, the long service life of the coating allows you to save on numerous repairs, and with proper care of the parquet, the floor covering will look like new in a few years.
Let’s consider in more detail the nuances of parquet selection.
Types of parquet
There are many parquet laying technologies, but the choice of a specific one depends on the type of parquet on which the owner of the apartment settled. Several types of floor covering are common:
- Artificial parquet . The most common option among consumers looks like separate boards of a fixed size, which are connected to each other with the help of special spikes or grooves.
- Laminated parquet . An analogue of natural parquet, available from the financial aspect to everyone. Laying of laminated products is carried out according to the general scheme with natural wood.
- Massive parquet. It is similar to the artificial one, but differs in size and production method. Since massive parquet is created from whole wood, the cost of covering is very high. A more common name is parquet board.
There are three main methods of laying parquet, and many nuances to each of them. Basic theoretical knowledge, which must be learned before starting work, will be described below.
- Installation of parquet on screed. The first step is to measure the moisture level on the floor surface using an electronic hygrometer. If the indicator exceeds 2 percent, apply a special primer (water barrier) in two layers, between which lay a layer of quartz sand. Prime the surface with parquet glue, most often rubber glue is suitable, but before buying, specify which type of parquet you have chosen. Cut sheets of moisture-resistant plywood into 4 equal parts, cover the base with them so that there is a gap of 5 mm between the sheets. Check the horizontality of the surface using a building level. Immediately before laying the parquet, apply parquet glue to the plywood, level it and start laying out the wooden elements in the pattern you have chosen. For complete fixation, use an assembly gun with thin nails. A week after the installation is completed, cycle the parquet, putty the surface with a special liquid mixed with wood dust. After drying, cover the parquet with varnish.
- Installation of parquet on the logs . The technology for installing parquet on joists is no different from the procedure described above, only the plywood is not placed on the base of the floor, but on exposed and horizontally aligned joists. This method has a number of advantages: the vacated space under the parquet floor can be used for communications, by laying insulation between the logs, you will increase thermal insulation and reduce the amount of transmitted noise to neighbors, in addition, the distance from the base allows you not to think about moisture, the parquet floor is not in danger.
- Laying parquet on a rough floor . The rough floor is made of wood, which must be carefully leveled and covered with special compositions that will protect against mold and subsequent rotting.
- Laying parquet using floating floor technology . The advantage of the technology is the absence of an adhesive layer, parquet installation is carried out using a system of grooves and pins industrially created along the edge of the board. Such a coating can even be carefully disassembled and taken with you in case of moving, it is also easy to repair one board by removing only one faulty element.
- Laying parquet using glue . It differs from the traditional system in that the glue is not used over the entire surface of the floor, the glue strengthens the sidewall on which the groove and spike of the parquet are located. The main feature of this method is the right choice of glue. Water-based compositions will not be suitable, the coating will go bumpy from such glue and will be irreversibly damaged.
Installation of parquet with your own hands is an easy task if you know the theoretical basics and follow the basic rules. Parquet flooring with careful use and care will serve you for decades, appearing before guests in its original form.
Ways of laying parquet
The next stage of arranging the parquet floor is laying the parquet. Its terms are affected by many factors:
- the complexity of the parquet pattern;
- the quality of the parquet itself and its geometry;
- choice of glue type;
- Compiler’s skill.
Deck laying is considered the easiest: in this case, parquet in a room with an area of 20 m 2 can be laid in 2-3 days. Complex ones include figured masonry, when trapezoids, rhombuses, etc. are cut from rectangular slats. The cutting must be very precise in order to perfectly connect the corners of all parts. Therefore, laying figured (artistic) parquet takes almost twice as much time – up to a week.
It is easy to lay parquet with a good geometry, as the slats with strictly maintained dimensions fit perfectly with each other. You can check this even when buying: you need to take several strips and fold them on a flat surface. Slats with good geometry will connect well and without gaps.
The time required for gluing parquet depends on the hardening time of the selected glue. Technological aging is from 3 to 7 days. During this time, the water in the water-containing glue evaporates, the polymerization process takes place in the solvent-based glue, and the parquet is stabilized. However, laying the parquet only on glue is not enough: during polymerization (hardening) of the glue, the slats must be pressed. To do this, they are additionally shot or nailed to plywood.
Until the glue has hardened, the moisture contained in the glue deforms the parquet slats, and a slight change in the topography of the floor surface can be observed. Parquet made of problem species (beech, maple, etc.) is subject to greater deformation. Therefore, grinding should be started only after the end of the technological pause.
And, finally, you should not expect flawless laying of parquet from companies that carry out complex repairs of premises. They install parquet quite rarely and do not have the skills, dexterity and equipment of masters who perform these jobs every day. Only professional SUVs know technology, understand modern materials, take into account all the nuances of laying.
The technological aging necessary for the glue to harden is from 3 to 7 days
Technological requirements for the base:
humidity – up to 40-50%;
permissible error (unevenness) – 2 mm for every 2 meters of coverage;
strength – 8 MPa (not worse than).
In order for the project to be implemented qualitatively, the material should be kept for at least a day in the room for which it is intended. This will ensure its adaptation to local conditions. After all, it is a multilayered material, and each layer has its own level of thermal conductivity.
Parquet installation technology
Parquet installation is a complex of works using various materials and tools, including control ones. The parquet laying technology depends on the chosen type of parquet flooring. Here is a description of the technological process of laying parquet “on plywood”. The goal is to equip the customer with an understanding of what the specialists hired by him should do to obtain the maximum quality and durability of the floor covering.
To begin with, it is necessary to remind what work must be done before laying the parquet. All electrical installation work in the room must be completed, the installation of communications under the future parquet flooring must be completed, the installation of windows and window sills must be completed, all work that is dangerous due to the appearance of water or moisture, paint, oil and other contaminants on the surface of the coating must be completed. In the room where the covering is planned, sockets for connecting power tools should be installed, lighting, ventilation and heating should be provided, with moderate temperature differences. The temperature for laying parquet should be within 18-24 o C and relative humidity 35-60%. If this is all there is, we start work, following the following order:
- Checking the level of already laid adjacent coverings, for example, tiles. In order not to have to lay compensating layers of plywood, you should make a vertical layout of the floor of the apartment in all rooms or coordinate the level of adjacent surfaces with the parquet installer in advance. Used tool: level of any type, better – laser.
- Acquaintance with the scheme of communications laid in the screed. The absence of such a scheme in the presence of communications significantly increases the risk of their damage when laying materials using pins.
- Checking the state of the screed: checking the density, humidity, surface strength. Necessary parameters: deviation from flatness of no more than 2 mm on a base of 2 m. The surface of the screed should be dense, dry and not dusty. Used tools: level, thermometer, hygrometer, devices for testing screed strength. In the simplest case, to check the strength of the screed, a pointed metal rod is used, which is used to apply diagonal lines that intersect on the surface of the screed. The presence of chips at the intersection of lines, unclear or crumbling edges of lines is not allowed!
- Cleaning the screed surface. Removal of residual dust with a vacuum cleaner. The presence of flaking, garbage, dust, remnants of plaster, paints is not allowed on the surface.
- Visual control of the surface before applying the primer. The operation is mandatory! Used tool: spatula. The use of rollers and brushes will lead to an increase in primer costs and, accordingly, the cost.
- The technological break for the standard drying of the primer, specified in the passport for the primer.
- Laying of moisture-resistant plywood, in a checkerboard pattern (with offset joints), cut into squares of 500×500 mm on glue with simultaneous installation of pins with a pneumatic gun. The gap between plywood pieces is 4-5 mm, the gap from walls, columns and other fixed objects on the floor is 8-10 mm. The use of pins instead of dowels significantly improves the quality of fastening plywood to the screed compared to screws installed in dowels. Tools used: notched trowel, compressor and air gun for installing pins.
- Technological break for regulatory polymerization of glue, specified in the passport for glue.
- Grinding plywood. Used tool: drum sander. Control lack of steps, ensuring an even, smooth surface. Control of the density of adhesion of polished plywood to the floor, control of the absence of “bulging” pieces.
- Unpacking parquet boards and checking their condition. Control of the absence of damaged and contaminated slats. (It is carried out immediately before laying in the room where the covering is to be laid).
- Preparation for applying glue to the base. The components of the glue must be thoroughly mixed with a mixer to ensure a uniform color of the glue mixture.
- Laying parquet on glue on polished plywood with installation of pins. The gap from the walls is 8-10 mm. With a complex layout of the slats, preliminary marking of the layout on the floor is necessary.
- If the board is not covered with a finishing layer in the factory, the surface of the laid parquet is polished with subsequent application of multi-layered oil-wax or varnish coatings. Used tools: various flat sanders and tools for applying oils and varnishes.
- Installation of plinths.
- If it is necessary to carry out any work after the finishing coating of the parquet, carefully protect the surface of the coating by covering it with dense cardboard or fiberboard sheets.
- Performing parquet work with the technology mentioned above ensures the maximum service life of your floor. Of course, we should not forget about the quality of the parquet itself.
The cost of laying parquet
Parquet is not only beautiful, but also reliable. This coating boasts a long service life. The main condition for this is the high quality of the parquet itself and, of course, its installation. In order for the parquet to be able to decorate the floor as long as possible, it is better to entrust its installation to specialists. The cost of laying parquet is not so high. At the same time, the final result will surely be of high quality.
How is the cost of laying parquet calculated? Only the company that provides such a service can answer this question, since each of these companies has its own principles for calculating the price of work. The cost of laying parquet depends, first of all, on the area of the room. The cost of the material itself can also affect it. Natural solid wood is expensive, so it requires greater accuracy and time from the installer. It is quite understandable that the more difficult the work is, the higher it will be rated. It is important that the cost of parquet installation was calculated and discussed before the start of any work. In this case, the customer will be able to assess the benefit of cooperation with this or that company Sacramento Home Additions in advance, and the contractor will not be able to raise the price after the work is completed.